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The Curiosity Rover
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The Curiosity, a Mars Rover, landed with the help of a robotic space probe by the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL). The Curiosity Rover launched in November of 2011 by NASA.
The rover landed in Aeolis Palus in the Gale Crater in August of 2012, it took the rover eight months to reach Mars from Earth.
The Curiosity Rover is a car-sized rover (a six-wheeled robot named by a sixth-grader) equipped with an array of instruments suited for scientific investigations on another planet.
What Will Curiosity Do?
The scientific investigations that were to be carried out by Curiosity included the study of the climate and geology of Mars; whether the site in the immediate vicinity in the Gale Crater offered environmental conditions favorable to the growth of microbes.
Additional investigations include the role of water, if any, was present and whether the planet could be habitable by humans in the future.

Cite: https://astronomyisawesome.com/solar-sys...ity-rover/

Curiosity is just the name of the rover; the overall mission is referred to as the Mars Science Laboratory or MSL
Of the previous 39 missions to Mars, including orbiters and landers, only 15 have been successful
All six successful landers have been NASA missions, though a Soviet lander did broadcast for 14 minutes before contact was lost
The Mars Science Laboratory mission cost $2.5 billion which is about $1 billion over budget

The Rover
The Curiosity rover weighs 900 kilograms
When on Mars it will be able to move at 30 meters per hour depending on the terrain
Curiosity has 17 cameras and 10 other scientific instruments
These include a mobile organic chemistry lab and a laser that can vaporise rocks
The rover is powered by a radioisotope thermoelectric generator and lithium-ion batteries

Cite: https://space-facts.com/mars-curiosity-facts/

Why do we give names like "Perth" and "Aberdeen" to Curiosity's rock targets? How does the largest city in Western Australia end up right next to a Washington State timber town? As a Long-Term Planner for the Curiosity science team, one of my responsibilities is to keep track of the names that the team uses, and to make sure that they fit within the theme for this portion of the rover's traverse. Curiosity is currently in a region of the team's geologic map called the Torridon Quadrangle, named after a village in the Northwest Highlands of Scotland, which is near an important geological formation called the Torridonian Supergroup. Therefore, all of the names assigned to targets in this region of Curiosity's traverse come from landforms, geologic formations, and towns in that part of Scotland. So the namesakes of today's "Perth" and "Aberdeen" rock targets on Mars are the same as those of all the other Perths and Aberdeens out there: Perth, Scotland, and Aberdeen, Scotland.

Cite and really good pics: https://mars.nasa.gov/msl/mission/mars-r...n-updates/
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#2
Names are given to Curiositys targets by the scientist exploring them. There doesn't have to be any rhyme or reason in the naming.
Some are obvious (Home Plate or The Culdesac)
Others not so much so (Henri StClair)
"I will not go quietly into the night"
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